The draft law on toughening sanctions against Russia, introduced by a group of senators from the Republican and Democratic parties, led by Senator Lindsey Graham, August 14, was published on the website of the U.S. Congress.
Document S. 3336, entitled “Law on the strengthening of NATO, the fight against international cybercrime, and the introduction of additional sanctions against the Russian Federation”, has the short version names: “the Law on the protection of America’s security from the aggression of the Kremlin.”
The bill was introduced in Congress shortly after meeting US President Donald trump with the Russian President Vladimir Putin in Helsinki on 16 July and contains policy statements and a list of concrete measures that legislators propose to take in response to Russia’s actions.
The bill says that the United States does not recognize Russia’s annexation of Crimea — on the model of Declaration of 1940 on non-recognition of the annexation by the Soviet Union in the Baltic countries. The document also prohibits the U.S. administration to take steps aimed at the country’s withdrawal from NATO.
In the individual chapters of the draft law on Russia responsible for the use of chemical weapons (we are talking about the poisoning of Yulia and Sergei Skripal, British Salisbury), cyber-attacks and interference in the US presidential election in 2016, and suggested that Russia could make in Syria war crimes.
When the bill will be considered, is unclear. The previous bill on sanctions against Russia was enacted last year by overwhelming majorities in both houses of Congress.
Radio Liberty published fragments of the bill:
The extension of the Law on the struggle against the enemies of America through sanctions
180 days after the entry into force of the Law on the protection of America’s security from the aggression of the Kremlin, the President must impose sanctions against
(1) political figures, oligarchs and other persons who participate, directly or indirectly, in illegal and corrupt acts on behalf of the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin and the people acting on behalf of these politicians, oligarchs and persons;
(2) the Russian parastatal entities that engage in illegal and corrupt activities on behalf of the President of Russia Vladimir Putin;
(3) family members of persons referred to in paragraphs (1) or (2) that receive a significant profit from this illegal and corrupt activities; and
(4) persons, including financial institutions that carry out monetary transactions with the persons described in paragraphs (1), (2) or (3).
Sections 236-237. Sanctions against investments in energy projects
180 days after the entry into force of the Law on the protection of America’s security from the aggression of the Kremlin, the President must impose sanctions if a person, knowing about this law, invests in energy projects outside the Russian Federation, which owned by the Russian state or semi-state companies, the amount exceeding 250 million dollars.
As for the Russian energy companies, it is proposed that:
Sanctions will concern persons who sell, rent or provide RF products, services, technologies, financing amounting to more than $ 1 million.
Are subject to a ban on the supply of the following goods and services:
(b) Goods, services, technology, funding or other support, which can greatly help Russian Federation
(1) in the development of oil resources in the territory of the Russian Federation or
(2) in the production of oil in Russia, including any direct assistance in building, upgrading and repair of infrastructure, which allows development of oil resources in the Russian Federation.
Section 238 — the Russian public debt
The section prescribes that within 90 days after the Law came into force, the US President has
(1) to develop a mechanism that prohibits U.S. citizens from engaging in transactions that provide funding or to conduct any other activity that concerns the Russian public debt 180 days after the entry of this law into force;
“2) enjoy all the rights given him by Law of economic rights in international emergency circumstances (50 U. S. C. 1701 et seq.), including all that is necessary to block and prohibit all transactions in property and interests of one or more Russian financial institutions referred to in paragraph (b), if the property and interests located in the United States or in the possession and control of a United States citizen.
The act contains the following list:
(2) the savings Bank.
(3) VTB Bank.
(5) The Bank Of Moscow.
(6) Russian agricultural Bank.
The draft law emphasizes that under the Russian national debt refers to bonds issued by Russian Central Bank and the national welfare Fund and the Treasury of the Russian Federation.
Section 239 introduces similar measures against persons who cooperate with the Russians involved in hostile to U.S. actions in cyberspace.
The sanctions proposed in close coordination with the European Union and the U.S. State Department. The first report to the appropriate congressional committees that it is made for the implementation of this law, the President must give 60 days after the law came into force.
Section 623 requires the Director of National intelligence within 180 days after the enactment of the law to submit to Congress a detailed report on the personal status and the assets of the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin, including
(1) a rough estimate and known sources of income of Vladimir Putin and members of his family, including real estate, investments, Bank accounts, other business interests and information about the respective property owners; and
(2) a list of the most important foreign political officials and oligarchs in the Russian Federation depending on their proximity to Vladimir Putin.
(b) the Report must be unclassified document, but may contain a classified index.
Section 701. Within 90 days after the adoption of the act, the Secretary shall transmit to Congress a determination whether Russia under the criteria of the state sponsor of terrorism.
Section 704. The creation of a United national response center, which aims to coordinate the actions of the US government in response to hybrid threats to the US and their allies from the government of Russia, such as:
disinformation and propaganda through traditional media and social networks;
the creation, infiltration and manipulation of cultural, religioznymi, educational and political organizations or parties;
illegal transfer of funds to corruption, crime, and applying undue influence;
diversionary tactics and “gray” activities, including by paramilitary organisations;
cyber and other unconventional threats
the use of energy resources or infrastructure in order to influence sovereign countries and political entities.
Section 705. The Fund to counter Russian influence stands out $ 250 million in 2020-2021 fiscal years to help countries in Europe and Asia to protect the infrastructure and mechanism for the election against cyber attacks, to fight corruption and ukreplyat the rule of law, regulirovat to humanitarian crises and instability created by the invasion and occupation by Russia in Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine.
Section 706. Congress believes that the government’s use of Russian forces, intelligence operations, cyber attacks, campaigns of influence, including through corruption and disinformation, is a clear threat to the countries of Europe and Eurasia.
In response, the governments of these countries must redouble efforts to strengthen its institutions, political systems and civil society.
The U.S. government supports the democratic and legal institutions, which the Russian government is trying to undermine it, including NATO, the OSCE and the EU.
The U.S. government should increase efforts in Europe to counter threats to fundamental human rights and the rule of law, independent media, civil society and other democratic institutions, which plays a key role in the protection against harmful Russian influence in the long term.
Section 707. Congress believes that the Russian government abuses the mechanisms of the Interpol for political purposes to harass and humiliate political opponents. The United States should use its influence in the “Interpol” to prevent such abuses, including the suspension of the possibility for Russia to use such mechanisms.
Section 708. Congress found that
In March 2016, Amnesty International released a report stating: “the Syrian and Russian forces deliberately attacked medical facilities in flagrant violation of international humanitarian laws. But the really shocking thing is that the destruction of hospitals were part of their military strategy.”
21 September 2017 the spokesman reported the air strikes in Provincia Idlib and Hama, which have been damaged health facilities and shelter for civilians: “the attacks fit into a familiar framework: health facilities and workers, and civilians — victims of the attacks of the Syrian regime and its Russian allies.”
In February of 2018 in the result of Syrian and Russian air strikes killed 230 civilians, damaged at least 9 medical facilities. In a statement the head of the UN Agency for human rights was said that the airstrikes, depending on the circumstances,” “may constitute war crimes.”
In March the UN Commission for investigating events in Syria said that done unguided missiles Russian air strikes on populated areas of Aleppo November 13, in which at least 84 people were killed and 150 were injured, can constitute war prestuplenia.
In this regard, within 60 days after the adoption of the act, the Secretary shall transmit to Congress a report on possible war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by the Russian government or paramilitary formations and the contractors, acting on his orders in Syria.
Section 709. Within 90 days after the adoption of the law, the Director of national intelligence, in coordination with the Secretary of state and the Secretary of defense shall transmit to Congress a report which assesses the willingness and ability of the Russian government to ensure the withdrawal from Syria of Iranian forces or related to armed groups Iran… weapons technology and information directly or indirectly transmitted by the Russian government to the regime of Bashar al-Assad, Lebanese Hezbollah, Iran or associated forces in Syria that threaten the security and qualitative military superiority of Israel.
Section 710. Congress believes that technology companies, in particular, social networks are responsible for the fact that their platform was free from the misinformation disseminated by the government of Russia and other States.